Ekonomika - Library

Library

 

EPARCH BOOK


eparhova Finally we have the Serbian language Eparch the famous book, in fact Compendium of the crafts and trades of Leo VI the Wise. Since the invention of the manuscript in 1893 was translated into many languages. We get a text through the efforts organizer's Zoran Simonović and translator Aleksandra Djuric.
Already the title to see if it is a book of great importance for the economy, but who equally and law, philosophy, history, and general culture. The book was created in the tenth century during the legislative work of the emperors of the Macedonian dynasty.

 

 

 


 




MONEY AND FINANCIAL SYSTEM

 

novacinovcanisistemThe presence of Byzantine coins can be traced back to the time of Constantine I the Great, over Theodosius I, to Anastasia I. While working on this book, I paid special attention to money and the money system which was set up Anastasias monetary reform of 498 year. The period that I have chosen to deal comprises one hundred and twenty years of continuous circulation of money. This is a relatively long period that gives enough space for a comprehensive survey.
Our research money and the monetary system are reflected primarily in the observation of the economic life of the country. Cash and cash systems provide the fullest picture of monetary and fiscal policies of the Byzantine rulers in the period since the end V to the early seventh century. In particular, we point out that there are a solid number of preserved specimens of gold, silver and bronze coins of this period. This allowed the study and consideration, and monetary and fiscal policy.
The main feature of monetary and fiscal policies of the Byzantine period, the remarkable stability of the golden solidus. In the interest of the state was firmly maintains its stability. On the other hand there is the constant presence of latent inflation or bronze coins. Silver coin is minted rare, mainly in the western parts of the country and in Italy and North Africa. The measures taken by the state were aimed at protecting the quality of the golden solidus at the expense of the Bronze FOLIS and its fractions. The state is this policy successfully and achieved during this entire period.
Finally, we wish to point out that the present-day Serbia entered the composition prefecture of Illyricum in this period. Penetration and settlement of Slavs in central Illyricum occurred between 612 and 615 year. Act of settlement of Slavs in this region there was a complete cessation of circulation of money in the Byzantine cities, such as Nis and Caricin Grad.





FISCAL HARMONIZATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

 

fiskharmonizacijaFiscal harmonization, as one of the most controversial issues to current times and the future course of European integration, is bounded by the basic principles on which the European Union is founded: the principles of competition and the principle of subsidiary. These principles, however, compared to fiscal harmonization, have different implications: while the principle of competition as a factor of efficient allocation of factors of production, with tax neutrality and economic efficiency and lead to fiscal harmonization, the principle of subsidiary allows fiscal competition, since the Treaty of establishing a European Union tax issues left to the jurisdiction of the almost total member states. Fiscal harmonization in the most direct way is the political and economic implications of the EU member states, as it delves into the question of their tax sovereignty. As a tax policy only remaining macroeconomic instrument in the sovereign jurisdiction of EU Member States, resistance to further the process of fiscal harmonization, particularly in the area of ​​direct taxes, are extremely strong. Therefore the prospect of fiscal harmonization in the European Union to be determined and focused to achieve broader economic and political goals, the elimination of fiscal barriers to the functioning of the internal market and strengthening the competitive position of the EU on the global scale.








SOCIAL SECURITY FUNDS

 

socfondThe organization and functioning of social security (pension, disability and health insurance) are the subject of discussion and comprehensive analysis of the experts in this field in almost all countries of the world. The expenses for social security, primarily pension expenses have become a major burden public finances of many countries, both developed and undeveloped.
Unfavorable demographic structure (the ratio of the number of employees and retirees ) in favor of the retirees, the population is becoming steadily older , the participation of over 65 years in the total population is increasing , and the difficulties in the functioning of the national economy , have led to the definition of high contributions for employees and employers on the basis of which is funded by fees from the social insurance system , primarily pension contributions , as the most important element of social security.
Highly defined social security contributions affect the deterioration of the financial condition of the taxpayer (employee and employer), and difficulty in separation of social security contributions. The consequences of these problems are irregular payment of funds of social security contributions and the lack of payment of a pension with an insufficient amount of money to prevent the cover even the basic needs of retirees.







ECONOMIC POLICY OF BYZANTIUM

 

Legal texts like EKLOGA, of agricultural law, maritime law and military law marked the period from VII to VIII century. The time of their adoption is one of the most difficult periods of Byzantine history known as “Byzantine Dark Ages ". It is a time when the kingdom due to the political crisis and exposure to constant warfare on two fronts lost their possessions in Syria, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa, in most of the Balkan Peninsula in northern Italy and were forced to fight for their survival. For further deterioration of social conditions in the Empire influenced the appearance of movement to destroy the icons. Due to the infighting caused this movement to the next hundred years; the state became the stage of bloody and violent conflict.
Developing countries gradually feudalism and the prevalence of Greek spoken language, led to the adaptation of Justinian's codification of the new situation. It is these four laws were created as a result of these new changes. There was an adjustment not only the law but also the socio - economic relations in Byzantium.
The main features of the economic policy of the Byzantine Empire are constantly mixing state authorities in the relations related to the economy and economic life. The measures taken by the State had as a goal the protection of the existing situation in the socio -economic relations. It appears that the state protectionism was represented in all spheres of the life of agrarian relations over the maritime trade.

 




BOOK OF HARMONICS

harmoniciBook of harmonics is conceived as a kind of chronicle of a musical instrument, however, is surpassed by that project, and realized one multipurpose monograph with many answers to many questions about some of the musical instruments and musical arts.
The work is the result of patient work of masters in Economics, B. Jovancica, who, using both sociological and other scientific methods and principles come to significant conclusions and made it to the phenomenon of musical instruments and low culture in the region and beyond get another notable contribution ...